Implantation of cardiac pacemakers and antiarrhythmic devices, also with cardiac resynchronizing function (CRT)

A heart pacemaker is a miniature electronic device correcting heart rate that is too slow. The resynchronization pacemaker additionally can improve cardiac contractility and prevent premature death in some cases of heart failure. These devices consist of 1, 2 or 3 intracardiac electrodes and an electronic module connected to them powered by a built-in battery. Electrodes are inserted into the heart cavities through the vein system under X-ray control, and a module is implanted under the skin of the chest. The procedure is usually performed under local anaesthesia. A patient with an implanted pacemaker requires periodic follow-ups with a specialist in a designated clinic. Follow-up visits usually take place 1-2 times a year. A worn-out heart stimulator (until the battery runs out on average after approx. 10 years) is replaced with a new one, usually with the remaining electrodes.