Outflow (reflux)

This condition involves the retraction of urine from the bladder to the ureters, sometimes urine goes back to the kidneys causing a gradual damage to kidney parenchyma. Damage to the kidneys caused by a return wave of the usually infected urine leads to scars forming in kidneys, subsequent deterioration of their function and hypertension. Bladder defects combined with impaired function promote urinary retention and recurrent infections. The vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) often accompanies the defects of urinary tract, such as posterior urethral valves (PUVs) and bladder dysfunctions, which promote urinary retention after its delivery, and thus lead to urinary tract infections. Treatment of reflux depends primarily on the patient's age and severity of the disease. It can be conservative - administration of medicines and proper hygiene, as well as surgical. The surgical procedure may involve inserting a thin tube into the urethra and injecting Teflon or collagen into the region of ureter orifice into the bladder, or on the surgical reconstruction of the proper ureteral orifice to the bladder.