Allergic tests are performed in order to confirm the factor which causes the patient’s allergic reactions. On the basis of the medical history and examination, the doctor chooses which tests and which allergens should be used to perform the allergic evaluation of a given patient.
Drops of different suspensions containing allergens and drops with positive and negative control tests are placed on the forearm or on the back. Then, the nurse delicately punctures the skin through the drops with the use of single-use small scalpels. As a result of the punctures, a small amount of the allergen solution penetrates into the epidermis, and in case of an active allergy it will cause reddening, blister as after a mosquito bite and pruritus.
The test is interpreted after 15 minutes. The blisters resulting from the contact with the allergen are measured with a ruler and their diameter is compared to the blister resulting from the positive control test. The result of the test is interpreted by an allergist.
Upon 30–60 minutes the allergic reaction resolves spontaneously.
Preparation for the examination
No additional examinations are required prior to skin tests.
The result of the tests is credible, if the patient follows the below-mentioned rules prior to the performance of tests.
Before the examination:
- 2 weeks before the examination you should not expose skin to sunlight or use sunbeds.
- 7–14 days before the test you should stop taking antiallergic medicines.
- You should notify everyone about the drugs taken (Ranigast, Calcium, vitamins, steroids and antidepressants can influence the test results).
- 7 days before the examination you should not apply any drugs in the form of ointments and creams, in particular those containing steroids, on the skin of the forearms.
On the day of the examination:
- You should not eat chocolate, tomatoes, blue cheese, cabbage, spinach, sausage, tuna, gherkins
- You should not use balm on the skin of the forearms
- Viral or bacterial infections up to 3 weeks before the examination
- Taking antibiotic up to 3 weeks before the examination
- Case of anaphylactic shock or severe asthma attack up to 6 weeks before the examinationSkin diseases: acute urticaria, dermographism, atopic dermatitis and skin lesions: erythema, oedema, blisters, erythematous lesions, excessive epidermal exfoliation
- Intensification of symptoms, such as: cough, cold, dyspnoea, epiphora, on the day of examination