Tumors of lower urinary tract (urinary bladder and urethra) are usually malignant tumors originating from the epithelium of the urinary tract (transitional cell carcinoma, TCC).

Most often the neoplastic lesion is located in bladder, less often in urethra and commonly they develop as multifocal. Usually in the early stages they do not give any signs or symptoms, and the first symptom is hematuria, which is always a very worrying symptom. Sometimes (in case of tumors that constrict the urethral light, there are signs of obstruction of the urine outflow from the bladder.) The first diagnostic step is performing an abdominal and pelvic ultrasound, which can reveal pathological changes in the bladder, and detects possible coexisting pathologies in the upper urinary tract. If the ultrasound does not show any pathologies, it is necessary to perform a cysto - urethroscopy, i.e. urinary bladder and urethral endoscopic visual examination. This is an invasive procedure, performed under local anaesthesia, consisting in introducing a cystoscope through the urethra and examining the interior of the bladder and urethra. The examination lasts about 15 minutes and is not particularly unpleasant, it does not require hospitalisation and is performed on an outpatient basis.

Detected pathological lesions require surgical treatment by transurethral resection. Using a resectoscope inserted under anaesthesia (general or ductal), changes in the bladder and/or urethra are removed through the urethra. The obtained material is subjected to histopathological examination, which allows to determine the further management steps depending on the nature (benign, malignant) or severity of malignant tumors. After the procedure, a catheter is left in the urinary bladder for approximately 24 hours. The above procedure requires staying in the hospital for 1 to 3 days. The result of the histopathological examination is available after about 2-3 weeks. All patients after surgical treatment of the lower urinary tract cancer remain under constant urological and oncological care and, if necessary, undergo additional treatment.

Qualifications for the procedures are carried out by Dr Piotr Dzigowski at the Hospital Consultation Centre, the visit lasts 20 minutes, and the cost of the visit is 190 PLN.