Congenital testicular hydrocele, usually seen in children, is a collection of fluid from the peritoneal cavity. The testicle, while descending at the end of foetal life to the scrotum, entails a peritoneal projection - the vaginal process of peritoneum. During infancy, in a large number of boys this process remains open allowing fluid to move freely between testicular theca and peritoneal cavity. This is a so-called communicating hydrocele. This hydrocele varies in volume depending on the child's physical activity. If the communication channel is wide enough, the intestine can enter it and inguinal hernia is formed. If the vaginal process of peritoneum encroaches unevenly, this could lead to the so-called hydrocele of the spermatic cord. It is the accumulation of fluid above the testicle along the course of the spermatic cord. Surgical treatment is similar to inguinal hernia repair with an additional excision of the peritoneal vaginal process and can be performed by laparoscopic method. After this procedure the patient can leave the hospital the next day.